Abstract:Imagine a world where those with ear problems could buy electronic cochleas and those with eye problems, electronic retinas on Amazon and eBay. Imagine a world where all problematic human organs can be electronically replaceable to push humans toward the grail of immortality. All this might not be just imagination years from now if neuromorphic circuits continue to advance. Neuromorphs, or artificial neural microcircuits, capture the biological neural computational properties into mixed-signal VLSI (very large scale integration). These circuits are inspired by the function, structure, and plasticity of biological nervous systems by emulating their efficient inherent computational capabilities. They mimic the algorithmic behavior of the biological systems utilizing similar organizing principles through efficient adaptive and intelligent control processes in parallel. Adaptation, learning, and memory are implemented locally within each processing stage of these systems.