Why Airbnb Struggles In Nigeria

Why Airbnb Struggles In Nigeria

ICT is facilitating the process of socio-economic development in Nigeria. It has offered new ways of exchanging information, and transacting businesses, efficiently and cheaply. It has also changed the dynamic natures of financial, entertainment and communication industries and provided better means of using the human and institutional capabilities of the nation in both the public and private sectors. Nigerians have seen a total redesign of many industrial sectors, from banking to insurance, as technology reduces the friction in business processes. Technology improves efficiency, delivering better experience for customers.

Increasingly, ICT is rapidly moving Nigeria towards knowledge-based economic structures and information societies, comprising networks of individuals, firms and states that are linked electronically and in interdependent global relationships. This linkage has enabled new classes of companies to emerge, not just in Nigeria, but globally.

We have gotten used to phrases like “Network Effects” and “Portal Effects” as typically used when digital ecosystems and platforms like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn become more efficient, not just for the features, but for the very fact they have most people using them.

Uber has pioneered aggregation of transportation, at scale. Airbnb has also done the same in the hospitality sector. (Aggregation is a construct where an app or web app brings suppliers into an ecosystem for users/customers to find and patronize them. Uber aggregates taxi services for travelers or just for a city trip. Airbnb aggregates spare rooms for those that need rooms when they are out of town. The companies earn income through commissions.) Aggregation has made it possible that we can have a “home” outside home, for those that desperately want to save when they travel. Technology has made this aggregation possible, at cost model, that the startups that pioneered them have become empires; Uber is worth excess of $50 billion.

Airbnb is an online marketplace and hospitality service, enabling people to lease or rent short-term lodging including vacation rentals, apartment rentals, homestays, hostel beds, or hotel rooms.


Uber has found success, but Airbnb struggles, in Nigeria. We know of Uber and use the service. Airbnb is largely off the radar. Few writes about it. There are pockets of listing across major cities, but Airbnb has no meaningful presence in Nigeria. Airbnb has been operational in Nigeria since 2014 even though we may not know the office address, if it exists.

In South Africa, which I visited recently, the level of Airbnb penetration was noticeable. Even in poor neighborhoods like Langa, near Cape Town, you can see many Airbnb listing. People have turned their homes into Airbnb homes. In Nigeria, we are yet to experience that.

Not Really Airbnb Problem

The root of this issue is Nigeria, and it is a big problem that is evident to most entrepreneurs, depending on the business sector. Because of the low level of trust, especially in digital business, Nigerians like “cash and carry” transactions, where that cash now includes digital payments.In essence, we want to spend money on something and get the gratification immediately. Or better, we want to inspect before we pay.

The commodification of trust which has made Airbnb a multi-billion dollar firm does not work in Nigeria. When you do not have that trust, nothing can work. It is also a problem that technology, by itself, cannot just fix. It is at the root of Nigerian challenges online and that affects many companies including Konga, Jumia and other e-commerce companies. That has reduced the available pool of quality customers – people that make good income but are fearful of spending online in Nigeria. They have minimal trusts on websites and our payment infrastructures.

I have experienced this as an entrepreneur. Few years ago, we launched StartCrunch, a crowdfunding website, to help Nigerian entrepreneurs and makers crowdfund support for their ideas. Within days we had many people listing. However, that venture failed because they could not attract backers. Most were not sure the makers would deliver the perks, as promised. Without backers, we could not make money. We closed the business.

Airbnb listing in Lagos

Fixing This Is Beyond Technology

The history of the lack of trust in Nigerian Internet can be linked to the boom in the “corruption sector” in Nigeria, which was aggressively invented by the military. As Internet penetrated in our society, the corruption went digital. The emergence of the Yahoo Boys should not be seen as an Internet phenomenon, rather an extension of a physical moral collapse. As military men ripped off the commonwealth, excluding many ordinary citizens, Internet provided a window for some of the excluded in a country with minimal opportunities, to try acts they had mastered in the meatspace (the physical world). Most of those men were later branded as Yahoo Boys. They poisoned digital Nigeria. The implication is that the Internet in Nigeria became corrosive to the extent that some courts and  banks, at a time, did not accept emails or documents from the web (that has since changed).

Changing this unfortunate path of Nigeria will not happen overnight. It will require orientation on civility and decency, which will take time to evolve. That is when we can see companies like Airbnb that require a higher level of trust to flourish, not just for the Americans but also for their Nigerian equivalents.

Three Key Problems for Airbnb in Nigeria

The heart of Airbnb problems in Nigeria can be summarized thus:

  • Difficulty of getting people to use their debit and credit cards to reserve “home” online. Even when people like to try, most will be afraid to put their cards online, for access to someone’s home (which is not a hotel). This sentiment may not be for college students, but for most, it is an issue. That said, Wakanow, Hotel.ng, etc have shown that customers do spend to get hotel rooms. Sure, Airbnb homes are different.
  • Trusting that people will see the rooms as advertised when they visit the “homes”. The perception of cheating makes few believe what they see online. The house looks good, but you are not sure. This is a huge challenge.
  • Overcome the security challenges since Nigerian Police is largely not on top of its game to prosecute crime, if it happens. What happens if someone is harmed, the guest or the renter? Airbnb is risky; doing that in Nigeria, as a guest, could be seen as madness. This is the biggest reason why Airbnb struggles. unfortunately, the firm cannot do much here. A LinkedIn user after this piece ran summarized thus “I read your piece and loved it! I just need to include a 4th problem for Airbnb: The Security of the homeowner. Some people will habour the fear of being raided by the so called guest who has come to sleep in their home whether immediately or after his/her stay. Trust is the highest denomination in Digital Currency!

Rounding Up

Nigeria is largely pre-monetisation era of Internet, at scale. Sure we have Konga, Hotel.ng, Jumia and iROKO, but the fact remains that it will take another 5-7 years to see dramatic evolution of spending on Internet. That has to happen before transactions which do not deliver value on the spot can be done by many people. Uber has to risk because you pay the driver when you get to destination. But when it comes to knocking on a door of a stranger, to sleep there, it is a tough one. The commodification of trust is an industry challenge which everyone has a duty to make sure it is institutionalized. That virtuoso moment in Digital Nigeria will not happen without it.


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14 thoughts on “Why Airbnb Struggles In Nigeria

  1. I think what this article fails to realize is there is a larger market of international guests that use Airbnb. Thus focusing on that market will yield better results that targeting domestic clients that are hesitant in using their cards.

    As a host, one simply needs to provide a secure location and maintain good reviews and ratings to win the trust of new guests.

    1. No issues – it is easier for that Nigerian coming from London to use Airbnb in Lagos than a Nigerian coming from Owerri!!!! If that is what you are saying, that would be very strange as those coming from abroad have lower trust than even those at home. This is not about credit cards. This is about moving into a house of a stranger with your luggage from the international airport. That is not for Nigeria. I do not know the country you are commenting for but this piece is for Nigeria.

    1. My worst type of comment. Disagreeing without making that clear and offering an opinion. You can disagree with the world but nothing changes. You need to have an opinion and explain your point. What have you disagreed with here? Let us know and put your reasons. That way everyone learns.

  2. Very interesting material . Your article although enlightening , struck me as being too hard on those pioneers /operatiors of air bnb accomodation in Nigeria.

    I say this because, Although it is a well known fact that the usage of Digital payment in Nigeria is still a long way from what it should be,especially when compared to foreign countries like Europe ,USA, and Scandinavia, there is no denying the fact that the ammou t of Nigerians who have Bank accounts and ,know how to use ATM Machines clearly shows that Yahoo Boys or not, there is no halting the Digital payment trend in Nigeria

    A few decades ago, only those “who had made it” had Bank accounts, ATM cards or even Mobile phones, now it is a common thing for most people to carry out their financial transactions via their mobile phones.

    what I,m saying in essence is this in the next couple of years, the present pioneers of airbnb in Nigeria ( so long as they maintain the requires standards needed ) being trustworthy,Honest and caring caring, they will most certainly become a force to be reckoned with in the areas of Tourism and Hotel accomodation I cities like Lagos, Portharcourt a d Abuja,to mention just a few.

    Granted I too would have second thoughts about paying for and checking into a stranger,s flat/house for my holidays but the fact still remains that, airbnb do have their verification methods which I as a guest had to go through after registering/ opening an account with them.

    With this mind , payment and the fear of losing ones money is the least of the problem,because the money one pays to the Host is done strictly via airbnb ( anyone who is conversant with PayPal, Amazon etc) should know where i,m coming from.

    Lastly, True Nigeria has problems with corruption, which has been the bane of our society for as long as long as i can remember, but this phenomenon is not restricted to Nigeria alone, countries. Anyone who has lived in most Eureopean countries(not to mention the USA) will arrest to this fact!

    So, instead of writing reviews that will deter those who are willing to go into the business of renting their homes for certain periods of the year and thereby earn money legitimately. We should encourage them to be honest, trustworthy and zeal-oriented , to go-ahead and let their entrepreneuring spirit soar because, like the adage goes, “Rome was not built in a day”….we as Nigerian will certainly get there, it may take us a while, NO, a few more deades but ,WE WILL GET CERTAINLY THERE!

    Ps….i,m just a Nigerian house-wife and a mother.

  3. We have failed to touch there most important issues here, (Infrastructure) : Light, Good roads, Security, A working legal system, this is will go along way to solve some deep lying
    issues in the minds of Nigerians. Fear of the unknown (diabolism) makes it even worse.

  4. I am becoming an addict of tekedia.com and I just got referred by an old friend who came back home for Christmas holidays. I know I will meet you Ndubuisi someday and when I meet you, I will share my full internet business story and history but for now let me start with this:

    You are absolutely correct with everything you have said, I used to sound exactly like this because I have launched over 100 websites for clients and myself (I even launched a social network and shut it down)

    @evaarike also added some important issues

    We have failed to touch there most important issues here, (Infrastructure) : Light, Good roads, Security, A working legal system, this is will go along way to solve some deep lying
    issues in the minds of Nigerians. Fear of the unknown (diabolism) makes it even worse.

    While all these are existing truths, can you believe that Bet9ja.com is the second most visited website in Nigeria beating Google.com.ng according to Alexa.com.

    I used to run a sports betting site and I definitely experienced a huge number of online transactions with these so called Nigerians that have trust issues. They mostly funded their betting accounts with their debit cards.

    My point basically is Nigerians don’t have an issue paying online, they just want to pay for a deal that nobody else can offer them. Something like 10,000 odds on a N100 stake to give them N1,000,000 that’s a N999,900 return on investment. They will make you the second most visited website in the country.

    1. Most betting sites have physical elements – that is what we believe will work in Nigeria. Think of new Konga hybrid model (stores and website). The challenges on digital business are not the websites but lack of local physical connection points. If you check betting companies in Nigeria, they always have offline offices. Yet, Airbnb issue is not really about offline/online. The challenge is trust. They can fix it with better frameworks. The only penalty will be the cost they serve may not beat many local hotels to be superior on value.

  5. This is rather an emotion piece. Feelings. I didn’t see any numbers to support your overly pessimistic position. I would wonder your views have evolved since you first wrote this. For the better or even worse.

    It would have also been more informative if there was an experiential aspect – whereby you had actually booked into an Air BnB and wrote based on your (BAD) experience of staying in one.

    On the issue of infrastructure, there are estates in Abuja and Lagos where the electricity and water and security are assured round the clock. People run Air BnB out of such places.

    A bien tot.

  6. Interesting piece Prof.
    I got to know about Airbnb about 4 years ago and used it twice while visiting the US.
    Dec 2018 I got a place in VI and listed it on Airbnb, I’ve had 8 bookings since then and all my guests have been people visiting from outside Nigeria (Both Nigerians and Foreigners)
    I’ll say the awareness of Airbnb is very high abroad and even with trust issues on Nigeria, people are still willing to use the platform based on international trust of the brand

    In Nigeria however, awareness is still quite low. Its a cheaper and more convenient alternative to hotels especially for family travels. Airbnb can do a lot more if they intend to grow their market in Nigeria. Requirement of having a US bank account for hosts is one of the bottle necks limiting listings, also having local Customer care to solve issues readily will help

    I tried listing same apartment on Booking.com but couldn’t complete, however I received a call from one of their reps who explained what needed to be done, very impressive for me

    Looking forward to hosting my 1st guest living in Nigeria and will be honored to host you Sir. Link to my Airbnb listing below:



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